The Universal Identifier is a common identifier used by different platforms in addition to other identifiers. You can significantly expand the reach of advertising campaigns. 

Its technological objective is to identify users in a similar way to 3P cookies. But using hashed identifiers in compliance with data protection regulations.

This identifier is also cross-channel and cross-platform, making it more advanced than cookies that can only identify users on the web.

Two identifiers work together in universal IDs: First-party website cookies and Permanent user identifiers.

The main limitation of this solution is the scalability issue: it requires an agreement between many publishers. 

As a result, Universal ID providers can offer fragmented audiences and limited inventory in certain niches.

So it may work well for some advertisers, but for others, the reach can be quite limited.

Datasets or data cleanrooms

It is an independent data warehouse where the brand can upload its data from a site. The publishers do the same from their side. 

As a result, advertisers get information about their audience from the publisher’s resources. It can activate the audience with the publisher’s targeting. 

It does the work securely and by existing data protection regulations and does not require alternatives to third-party cookies. 

The main limitation of this solution is that it requires a trusted and unbiased intermediary who works in the interests of both parties and respects local privacy laws.

On the other hand, this solution is difficult to scale because it coordinates with many publishers.

User Identity Graphs

This solution aggregates various identifiers, both PII (like emails, phone numbers, and physical addresses) and non-PII (like first-party cookies and PubMed). 

The main advantage of this alternative to cookies is that user graphs allow advertisers to activate audiences across different channels and connect user activities in different environments. 

The main disadvantage of this method is that it is difficult to develop and implement internally without accidentally compromising privacy.

To ensure the security of user data, advertisers and publishers must choose a trusted provider that provides the necessary technical infrastructure.